Buying carpet is an important purchase and can be expensive - too expensive to make a mistake once it's been fitted. Most carpet that is not made of natural fibres is either tufted or woven.
If you are technically minded, tufted carpet is made by punching the pile yarn into a pre-formed woven primary backing fabric. Needles are used for the punching and then a secondary backing fabric made of latex is applied. Basically a tufting machine is very much like a big sewing machine.
There are only two types of woven carpet - Axminster and Wilton. Both types of woven carpet are made traditionally by weaving the front and back of the carpet simultaneously. Thus, it is consequently more labour intensive thatn manufacturing tufted carpet. Axminster carpet is most often patterned with different colours and makes extremely good pattern definition. Wilton carpets tend to be used for plain carpet and textures.
Tufted carpet tends to be more the budget end of the market as it's synthetic. Woven carpets are at the luxurious end and can be expensive - but you get what you pay for!
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